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Travel Info: Visiting Peru Of South America

Peru People

» Peru was home to various Pre-Inca cultures and later, to the Inca Empire . Francisco Pizarro  landed on the Peruvian coast in 1532 , and by the end of the 1530s  Peru became a Viceroyalty  and a major source of gold and silver for the Spanish Empire . Peru declared its independence from Spain on July 28 , 1821.

» The Lima Province , located in the central coast of the country, is unique in that it doesn't belong to any of the twenty-five regions. The city of Lima  is located in this province, which is also known as Lima Metropolitana .

Capital of Peru: Lima
Offical Language:
1,285,215 SQ KM
Nuevo Sol
Calling Code:

:: Peruvian regions are



La Libertad
Madre de Dios

San Martin

» Peru is located in Western South America , bordering the Pacific Ocean , between Chile  and Ecuador . It also shares borders with Colombia , Brazil  and Bolivia .

The western coastal plains (costa) are separated from the eastern lowland jungle of the Amazon Basin (selva) by the high and rugged Andes  in the center (sierra). On the border with Bolivia lies Lake Titicaca , the world's highest navigable lake at 3821 m. A land rich in cultural heritage and a variety of natural environments, harbors 84 of the 118 known life zones of the earth.

» The culture of Peru was shaped by the relationship between Hispanic  and Amerindian cultures. During pre-Columbian times, Peru was one of the major centers of artistic expression in The Americas, where Pre-Inca cultures, such as Chavín , Moche , Paracas, Huari  (Wari), Nazca, Chimu and Tiahuanaco developed high-quality pottery , jewelry, and sculpture . Drawing upon earlier cultures, the Incas continued to maintain these crafts but made even more impressive achievements in architecture. The mountain town of Machu Picchu  and the buildings at Cuzco are excellent examples of Inca architectural design.

Peru has passed through various intellectual stages--from colonial Hispanic culture to European Romanticism after independence. The early 20th century brought "indigenismo," expressed in a new awareness of Indian culture. Since World War II , Peruvian writers, artists, and intellectuals such as Cesar Vallejo and Jose Maria Arguedas have participated in worldwide intellectual and artistic movements, drawing especially on U.S. and European trends.

About 45% of Peru's population is indigenous, while mestizos make up about 37% and whites 15%. There are also small numbers of persons of Japanese, Chinese, and African descent. Most of the native inhabitants speak Quechua (an official language) or Aymara; they live in the Andes and have retained much of their traditional way of life. Small groups of indigenous peoples live in the isolated rain forest of E Peru and speak a variety of languages. Most other Peruvians speak Spanish (the other official language) and are Roman Catholic. Power and wealth in the country have traditionally been monopolized by the European-descended inhabitants and by a small number of the mestizos; the bulk of the mestizos and virtually all of the indigenous people are laborers or subsistence farmers. The leading universities are at Lima, Arequipa, Trujillo, and Cuzco.

:: Peru Climate

Peru , which varies greatly in climate and topography, falls into three main geographical regions—a narrow strip of desert along the coast, a region of high mountains in the center, and a large area of forested mountains and lowlands in the east. The desert region stretches the entire length (1,410 mi/2,269 km) of Peru 's Pacific coastline and owes its aridity to the cold Humboldt, or Peru , Current, which acts as a barrier to the moist air over the Pacific. A persistent warm current (El Nino; see appears off the coast every two to seven years, bringing torrential and damaging rainstorms. The coastal and mountainous regions also are frequently shaken by severe earthquakes.


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